Fizz Fears: Investigating PFAS in Sparkling Water

Are you looking for sparkling water with the lowest PFAS? Yeah, me too. Let me share what I have found so far, after some extensive online research.

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What Are PFAS In Sparkling Water

First, let’s clarify “what is PFA in sparkling water”. Well, the S is not for the plural in there. PFAS stands for “Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances”. This is a group of man-made, water and grease-resistant chemicals. They have been used in various industrial and consumer applications.

PFAS In Sparkling Water List

You (just like myself) may have this concern that PFAS are present in bottled sparkling water, however, they are not typically used as ingredients. The presence and regulation of specific PFAS may vary by country or region. As far as I see, it is recommended to check with any respective sparkling water brands to get the most accurate and up-to-date information about the presence of PFAS or any other chemicals in their products.

Anyways, here is a list of some well-known PFAS, that I have found with the help of ChatGPT:

  1. Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA)
  2. Perfluorooctanesulfonic Acid (PFOS)
  3. Perfluorononanoic Acid (PFNA)
  4. Perfluorodecanoic Acid (PFDA)
  5. Perfluorohexanesulfonic Acid (PFHxS)
  6. Perfluorobutanesulfonic Acid (PFBS)
  7. Perfluorohexanoic Acid (PFHxA)
  8. Perfluoroheptanoic Acid (PFHpA)
  9. Perfluoropentanoic Acid (PFPeA)
  10. Perfluorotetradecanoic Acid (PFTeDA)
  11. Perfluoroundecanoic Acid (PFUDA)
  12. Perfluorododecanoic Acid (PFDoDA)
  13. Perfluorohexadecanoic Acid (PFHxDA)
  14. Perfluorobutanoic Acid (PFBA)
  15. Perfluoropentanesulfonic Acid (PFPeS)
  16. Perfluorodecane Sulfonic Acid (PFDS)
  17. Perfluoroheptane Sulfonic Acid (PFHpS)
  18. Perfluorohexane Sulfonic Acid (PFHxS)
  19. Perfluorobutane Sulfonic Acid (PFBS)
  20. Perfluoroundecane Sulfonic Acid (PFUDS)
  21. Perfluorotetradecane Sulfonic Acid (PFTeS)
  22. Perfluorododecane Sulfonic Acid (PFDoS)
  23. Perfluorooctane Sulfonic Acid (PFOSA)
  24. Perfluorononane Sulfonic Acid (PFNS)
  25. Perfluorotridecanoic Acid (PFTrDA)
  26. Perfluorotridecane Sulfonic Acid (PFTrS)

This is not a comprehensive collection and these PFAS are not necessarily present in sparkling water at all. There are many PFAS with various chain lengths and functional groups, and more, new PFAS may be identified or even developed over time. Also, some PFAS have already been replaced with alternative chemicals or even phased out completely in certain applications due to potential health effects.

What Sparkling Water Does Not Have PFAS

According to Delish and Hone Health, the following sparkling water brands report to have zero PFAS:

500 ML Glass Sparkling Water
  • Bottled in the Ouachita Mountains USA
  • Bottled in recyclable glass
  • Naturally sodium free, Mineral Rich, 7.3 pH to 7.8...
Sound Sparkling Water - Blood Orange w/Vanilla & Black Tea. Organic. Zero Calories. Zero Sugar. Non-GMO. Whole30. Clean Caffeinated Seltzer Water. 12 Fl oz (Pack of 12)
  • Tea & Botanicals: We combine organic tea, with the...
  • Always Organic, Never Sweetened: You’ve never...
  • A Burst of Flavor: Sound is a sparkling water made...
Sparkling Ice, Black Raspberry Sparkling Water, Zero Sugar Flavored Water, with Vitamins and Antioxidants, Low Calorie Beverage, 17 fl oz Bottles (Pack of 12)
  • ZERO SUGAR Pretty sweet, right? Sparkling Ice...
  • FLAVOR YOU CAN TASTE This isn’t one of those...
  • VITAMINS & ANTIOXIDANTS Even when your favorite...

Sparkling Water With Least PFAS

And now let’s see some specific brands for the query of “sparkling water with least PFAS” from the same sources:

Aura Bora, Variety Pack Herbal Sparkling Water, 12 oz Can (Pack of 18), 0 Calories, 0 Sugar, 0 Sodium, Non-GMO
  • GOOD, CLEAN, HEAVENLY: Made with zero added sugar...
  • FEEL GOOD FLAVORS: Variety pack contains three 12...
Nixie Sparkling Water Organic Watermelon Mint Sparkling Water 8 Pack, 12 FZ
  • Product Type:Water
  • Item Package Dimension:12.7 cm L X13.411 cm W...
  • Item Package Weight:6.82 lbs
Proud Source Sparkling Spring Water, Natural Minerals + Light Bubbles, Infinitely Recyclable Aluminum, BPA-Free (24 pack 12 oz Cans)
  • NO PROCESSING – Proud Source Water is naturally...
S.Pellegrino Sparkling Natural Mineral Water, 33.8 fl oz. Plastic Bottles (Pack of 12)
  • Includes twelve 33.8 fl oz (1 L) plastic bottles...
  • This bottled sparkling water offers unmistakable...
  • S.Pellegrino sparkling mineral water is low in...
Spindrift Sparkling Water, Lemon Flavored, Made with Real Squeezed Fruit, 12 Fl Oz Cans, Pack of 24 (Only 3 Calories per Can)
  • Pack contains 24 cans of Spindrift Lemon flavored...
  • Containing 3% fruit juice and only 3 calories per...
  • Unsweetened, no added sugar, Gluten-free, non-GMO,...
Waterloo Sparkling Water, Blackberry Lemonade Naturally Flavored, 12 Fl Oz Cans (Pack of 12) – Zero Calories and Zero Sugar or Sweeteners of Any Kind
  • Naturally flavored sparkling water with Blackberry...
  • Zero calories, zero sugar, zero sweeteners of any...
  • Made with authentic flavors and lively carbonation...

My understanding is that PFAS can be but are not typically found in sparkling water. However, they have been detected in other sources, such as contaminated sites, firefighting foams, food packaging, non-stick cookware, stain-resistant fabrics, tap water, and water-repellent fabrics.

Are There PFAS in Soda Stream?

I have not found any reported issues regarding PFAS in carbonated water made by Soda Stream products. If you are concerned about the quality of the tap water you carbonate, contact your local water utility for information about water quality testing results, and further guidance.

What we have to keep in mind is that PFAS are persistent in the environment and can bioaccumulate in the food chain, leading to potential health and environmental concerns.

Data on PFAS occurrence and their potential health impacts are published by government agencies, environmental organizations and independent research institutions from time to time.

If you have specific concerns about PFAS exposure, reach out to your local health authorities for help!


Featured image credit:
Photo by Girl with red hat on Unsplash

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